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FREE Cheat Sheets for Learners of German as a Foreign Language

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Table of Contents

Cheat Sheet №1. Partizip I vs. Partizip II

Cheat Sheet №2. Personal Pronouns in Accusative & Dative

Cheat Sheet №1. Partizip I vs. Partizip II

Partizip I = Infinitive + d

NB: Participle I (Partizip I) has an active meaning, i.e. the noun defined by Participle I is a person or a thing performing the action.

laufen + d => laufend
der laufende Junge
A running boy

Partizip II = 3rd form of the verb

NB: Participle II (Partizip II) has a passive meaning, i.e. the noun defined by Participle II is a person or a thing that receives the action of the verb.

schreiben => geschrieben
der geschriebene Brief
The letter was written (by a person).

Cheat Sheet №2. Personal Pronouns in Accusative & Dative


NB: German personal pronouns change their form depending on the case. (See other cheat sheets to get more information on how to choose the right case).

ENGLISHGERMAN
NOM.
GERMAN
ACC.
GERMAN
DAT.
SINGULAR
I (me)ichmich
mir
you
dudichdir
he (him)erihnihm
she (her)siesie
ihr
it (it)esesihm
PLURAL
we (us)wirunsuns
youihreucheuch
they (them)siesieihnen
you (polite)SieSieIhnen

EXAMPLES

Accusative:

Kannst du mich sehen?
Can you see me?
Ohne euch kann ich das nich machen.
I can't do this without you.

Dative:

Gestern habe ich mit ihm Tennis gespielt.
Yesterday I played tennis with him.
Spiel mit uns!
Play with us!

Find more examples in our free PDF file!